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The names of the stones (minerals)

Aventurine - Fine-grained, dense brownish quartzite, gray-yellow or reddish tone. Its polished surface glows golden or reddish mass of sparks from the abundant inclusions of mica leaves. The most sought after stones reddish-brown with golden shimmer, but the color is and aventurine green, yellow, gray and whitish.
Mohs hardness: 6.0-7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

image aventurine image aventurine

Agalmatolite - opaque decorative ornamental stone, a type of pyrophyllite. Is used to manufacture a variety of figurines and ornaments. Name from "agalma" - a statue, a statue of (Greek), "litos" - Stone (Greek). Is white, gray with greenish and yellowish, sometimes red and even dark cherry. Because of the smooth, so-called "soap" the surface it is called "waxy stone" or "wen". Occurs in the southern Urals, Uzbekistan, in South-East Asia, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Romania, the United States and Mongolia.
Mohs hardness: 2.0-3.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Agate - layered multicolored-striped and intricately-patterned variety of chalcedony. It occurs most often in the form of rounded, spherical bodies called tonsils or geodes. In the context of a tonsil seen as chalcedony material (silica) is deposited in concentric layers from the surface to the center of the amygdala. As a result the structure of agate makes a handsome striped band-shaped, variously colored stripes: white, gray, yellow, blue, brown, red, black. There are varieties of agate and intricately-patterned structure, the nature of which is reflected in the names it is cloudy, oculate, tubular, moss, ruin agate, etc.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Image agate
Aquamarine - (from the Latin words "aqua" - water, "Mare" - the sea) - transparent variety of beryl, painted blue-green tones of sea water.
Mohs hardness: 7.5-8.0. Density: 2.8 g/cm3.

Image aquamarine

Actinolite - (from the Greek. "Radiant stone") green mineral on a structure of acicular or fibrous form. Contains elements of magnesium, iron, calcium and silicon.
Mohs hardness: 5.5-6.0. Density: 2,9-3,3 g/cm3

Alexandrite - variety of chrysoberyl. A rare gem from changing color, in daylight, it is green, artificial light is red-violet.
Mohs hardness: 8.5. Density: 3,68-3,77 g/cm3.

Image of alexandrite

Diamond - pure carbon, which is found in transparent crystals of small grains that are visible only under a microscope, to crystals weighing 3,000 carats (600 g). Often colorless or shade (nadtsvetom) - blue (the most valuable), green, yellow. In addition to transparent clear-crystal diamond known opaque granular aggregates - Ballas and porous opaque stones of irregular shape - black diamond.
Mohs hardness: 10.0. Density of 3.5 g/cm3.

Image diamond
Amethyst - this rhinestone (Group quartzites) with the natural purple color. Color density and uniformity of natural crystal is generally improved from the base of the crystal to its head. If the stone is natural, the place of origin without difficulty by an experienced jeweler or gemologist, because different mineral deposits have their own unique play of colors. Brazilian or Ceylonese stones in artificial light losing the game, the beauty and richness of its colors, the stones of the Middle Urals retain its shine and even bloody light reflections. Early last century, Academician AE Fersman amethyst wrote to Wolf Island in Lake Onega, which is lighter stones of the Urals, slightly yellowish.
Mohs hardness: 7.0. Density: 2,63-2,65 g/cm3.

Image of amethyst
Beryl - a mineral consisting of silicon, aluminum and beryllium (contains up to 14% beryllium oxide). Colorless or yellowish colored, greenish tona.K These include: Emerald (bright green), aquamarine (aqua), Sparrow (pink) and others.
Mohs hardness: 7.5-7.8. Density: 2,6-2,9 g/cm3.

Turquoise - opaque mineral beautiful blue or blue-green in color, with a matte sheen - aqueous phosphate of copper and aluminum.
Mohs hardness: 5.0-6.0. Density: 2.6-2.8 g/cm3.

Image of turquoise


Brilliant - cut diamond, and a special type of cut gems. It has the shape of two truncated pyramids stacked bases.

Vesuvianite - a mineral, calcium silicate and aluminum. Color from brown to green, sometimes gray-yellow and pale blue. Occurs in the form of crystals. Green varieties are for small craft projects.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density: 3.0-4.0 g/cm3.

Hairy or "hair of Venus" - rock crystal, amethyst or smoky quartz with inclusions of rutile and other hair-like minerals.

Vorobyevite - pink beryl containing cesium. Very beautiful stone polishers.

Jet - a strong, suitable for polishing a kind of brown coal. There are wonderful products from this stone.
Mohs hardness: 3.0-4.0. Density: 1.3 g/cm3.

Heliodor - golden variety of beryl, contains small amounts of iron oxide.
Mohs hardness: 7.5. Density: 2.8 g/cm3.

Bloodstone - dark green with small red dots variety of chalcedony.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density of 2.5 g/cm3.

Hematite - a mineral of iron oxide, brown-red, sometimes almost black. Translucent on thin sections, has a characteristic metallic luster. The name in Greek means "blood" Bloodstone - his second title in the Russian version. Black stones are called "black diamonds." Brown-red variety - red iron.
Mohs hardness: 5.0-6.0. Density: 5.3 g/cm3.
Image hematite

Rock crystal - clear, colorless variety of quartz.
Mohs hardness: 7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Garnet - a vast in the number of species and the spread of a group of minerals from the class of silicates of various colors from colorless to red and almost black with high hardness.
Mohs hardness: 7.0-7.5. Density: 6.5-8.0 g/cm3.

garnet stone image



Demantoid - golden and bright-green variety of lime-iron garnet with diamond-like brilliance.
Mohs hardness: 7.0-7.5. Density: 6.5-8.0 g/cm3.

 

Image demantoid

Jade - a dense, hard, tough mineral silicate of sodium and aluminum, it is very similar in its properties to jade. Apple-green or white, sometimes with bright green spots. Beautiful ornamental stone.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density of 3.0 g/cm3.

Pearls - solid round deposition of calcium carbonate in the shells of certain shellfish. Thin layered structure makes it a beautiful pearl pearl satin sheen.
Mohs hardness: 2.5-4.5. Density: 2.7 g/cm3.


Emerald - transparent variety of beryl, painted a beautiful green color.Net emeralds sometimes valued more diamonds.
Mohs hardness
: 7.5-8.0. Density:2.8 g/cm3.

image of the crystal emerald emerald image


Carbuncle - fiery red stone, basically becomes obsolete name (garnet, almandine, spinel, ruby, etc.)

Cacholong - Opal white porcelain, partially converted to chalcedony.

Quartz - solid mineral, colorless, white or various colors. On structure - silicon dioxide, or silica. One of the most common minerals. Encountered in the well-formed crystals, and also in granular or solid masses. Valued as a gemstone, especially in beautiful transparent varieties.
Mohs hardness: 7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

image of a quartz crystal rose quartz image

Kyanite - fragile mineral beautiful blue or blue tones, translucent to transparent. Contains up to 60% alumina and 37% silica. Heat-and acid-resistant varieties mineral.Prozrachnye go to cut.
Mohs hardness: 4.5-7.0. Density: 3.5-3.7 g/cm3.

Coral - marine animals, coelenterates. For the most part live in colonies, forming a solid skeleton of separate calcareous corpuscles of pink, red or white. Used as decoration.
Mohs hardness: 3.5-4.0. Density: 1.3-2.7 g/cm3.

Image of pink coral

Corundum - a mineral consisting of aluminum oxide. Stands out for its exceptional hardness. Draws all minerals except diamond. Red corundum is called ruby, blue - sapphire.
Mohs hardness: 9.0. Density of 4.0 g/cm3.

Cat's Eye - greenish variety of quartz with a silky sheen on the inclusions of asbestos fibers. Characteristic of his game, especially when polished cabochon.

Silica - Silica is a crystalline substance found in the form of quartz, as an amorphous - Opal etc.

Bloodstone - a dense type of hematite in polishing takes beautiful metallic gleam of the red tide, which causes his handling of a cabochon or into beads, ovals, etc.

Kunze - transparent, light purple or pink variety of spodumene - lithium silicate and aluminum. Named in honor of the American gemologist JA Kuntsa.Inogda also called lithium amethyst. Easily confused with amethyst, beryl and topaz. There are also brown or greenish kuntsity.
Mohs hardness: 6.0-7.0. Density: 3.2 g/cm3.

Lapis - opaque mineral aluminosilicate of sodium and calcium bright blue, violet-blue or greenish-blue glass glitter. These shades are due to the presence of sulfide ions. Rock composed of 40% called lapis lapis lazuli. Sometimes colored stone exactly, but more often with white spots or contains gold crystals of copper pyrites. Precious gemstone.
Mohs hardness: 3.5-4.0. Density: 1.3-2.7 g/cm3.

Image lapis lazuli

Lal - the ancient name of a noble spinel.

Moonstone - a kind of feldspar with a pearly opalescent sheen and silky soft bluish resembling moonlight. Moonstone from the coast of the White Sea is called the White Sea.
Mohs hardness: 6,0-6,6. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Malachite - beautiful opaque mineral bright green carbonate of copper, containing water. Characteristic wandering reniform formations. Quite exceptional ornamental and decorative stone with complex twisting pattern formed by improper zoning dark green, light green, turquoise, corduroy and other areas. By building - belt, struisty, radiating, etc. occurs in the upper parts of the copper deposits.
Mohs hardness: 3.5-4.0. Density of 4.0 g/cm3

. Image malachite

Raspberry schorl - he's rubellite.

Marcasite - a mineral composed of iron and sulfur, the structure is similar to pyrite. Tabular appearance, rarely korotkostolbchaty and spear-shaped, often in the form of "cocks' combs." Color light bronze-yellow. Metallic luster. Opaque.
Mohs hardness: 6.0-6.5. Density: 4.8-4.9 g/cm3.

Morion - rhinestone almost black, in thin splinters translucent brown color. With gentle heating (bake the bread) and is lighter yellow than are jewelers. With further heating, color may disappear altogether.
Mohs hardness: 7.0. Density: 2,651-2,68 g/cm3.

Onyx marble - translucent calcite deposition of different colors of hot and cold springs.

Jade - mineral milky white, gray, apple-green to a dark, almost black-green. Maloprozrachen, but in thin plates to shine through. Well polished. Very solid and viscous, plexus consists of macroscopic fibers under the microscope the structure is similar to felt. Used as ornamental stone and partly technical.
Mohs hardness: 6.0-6.5. Density of 3.0 g/cm3.

Peridot or olivine - a mineral yellow-green, olive or yellow-brown color with a glassy luster. Silicate of magnesium and iron. Occurs as granular aggregates, rarely in crystals. Transparent crystals of a golden-green color are called chrysolite and go to cut.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.5. Density: 3.3 g/cm3.

Onyx - a variety of agate, consists of layers of different colors - white and black, white and red, and the other layers are flat and straight bars. Onyx in turn differ in color colored stripes.
Mohs hardness: 3.0-3.5. Density: 2.7 g/cm3.

Opal - mineral amorphous, non-crystalline structure, which is silica with varying water content. Features a large variety of appearance and multi-color. The main varieties - clear, bright and rovnookrashennye (precious opal, Hyalite, gidrofan, fire opal). Common opal neraduzhnye not completely transparent (milk, wax, etc.) and poluopaly (agate, jasper, chalcedony, etc.), slightly translucent or opaque, mechanical impurities: cacholong - of porcelain white opal.
Mohs hardness: 5.5-6.5. Density: 2.1 g/cm3.

Image opal image cacholong

Prase - green quartz with inclusions of actinolite needles or flakes of chlorite.

Rauchtopaz - in the old days they called smoky quartz (rauch - "smoke" it.) Otherwise smoky topaz, smoky rock crystal. The most valuable variety of quartz, along with rock crystal, amethyst and citrine. There are crystals with inclusions of rutile, which creates reflections of rays like stars. Interestingly, in the nature caught specimens of smoky quartz crystals weighing up to several tons.
Mohs hardness: 7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Image crystals rauchtopas image rauhtopazovogo bracelet

Rhodonite or Orlets-second after malachite gemstone Urals, beautiful dark pink, cherry or raspberry color, sometimes with the transition to brown, often with black streaks or spots branching. Goes to the facet or large objects (vases, columns, etc.) typical Russian colored stone. Rhodonite with inclusions of yellow or brown color called fouleritom.
Mohs hardness: 5.5-6.5. Density: 3.6 g/cm3.

Rhodochrosite - mineral, chemical manganese carbonate, manganese spar differently. Name of the stone shows its pink color (rhodon - Pink and Gr.). In the East, it was called the "stone of the dawn," and in South America, a stone known as the "Rose of the Incas." The hardness is lower than that like him rhodonite. Deposit in Argentina, Hungary, Germany, USA. Most pure pink color stones from Mongolia. Considered beautiful and inexpensive stones.
Mohs hardness 4.0. Density: 3,3-4,7 g/cm3.

image image rose rhodochrosite Inca

Rubellite, schorl or raspberry, or Seabury - tourmaline variety from light pink to deep purple-red color. Valuable gem.
Mohs hardness: 7,7-7,5. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Image rubellite

Ruby - red transparent variety of corundum.

Rutile - a mineral, titanium dioxide, forming crystals of brown and yellow-red color with a diamond to a metallic color. Contains traces of iron, tin, tantalum and niobium. Meets grown into crystals in the form of fine fibers, called Venus hair.
Mohs hardness: 6.0-6.5. Density: 4,2-4,3 g/cm3.

Sapphire - blue transparent variety of corundum.

Solitaire - a large single diamond (yuvelir.)

Topaz - transparent, translucent and opaque mineral. Enough multicolority: wine-yellow, green, blue, pink with a strong glass shine. Chemically - aluminum fluorosilicate.
Mohs hardness: 8.0. Density of 3.5 g/cm3.

Tourmaline - a mineral very complex and variable composition, alkali aluminosilicate, calcium, iron, magnesium, containing boron. Color is extremely varied: cherry red (rubellite), pink, dark blue-green, multicolored, green and pink, brown, black (Shirley) and many others.
Mohs hardness: 7.0-7.5. Density: 3.1 g/cm3.

Tsavorite (or Tsavolit) - grosulyara variety of garnet. Chemically tsavorite is a silicate of aluminum and calcium. Looks a lot like an emerald, where instead of calcium present beryllium. You can distinguish them by various characteristics of light refraction and hardness. Tsavority come with a tinge of blue. The first stone was found in 1967 in Kenya in the Tsavo National Park. This rare stone name gave the then president of the "Tiffany" Henry Platt. Tsavority now is in the north-west of Mombasa (Kenya), near the border with Tanzania and Uganda. In most of Tanzania, near the border with Mozambique.
The stone is precious, Normal weight tsavorita rarely exceed 3 carats to 5 carats stones are extremely rare and more than 85% of the stones are less than 1 carat.
Mohs hardness: 7.0-7.5. Density: 3.1 g/cm3.

Image tsavorita

Uvarovite - garnet variety emerald-green color. Was opened in the Urals, in the old days it was called "Ural emerald." Named in honor of the Russian public figure, SS Uvarov. Since this stone is very fond of the Empress Catherine II, it was also called "the imperial stone."
Mohs hardness: 7,7-8,0. Density: 3.4-3.8 g/cm3.

Chalcedony - a mineral of various colors, cryptocrystalline variety of quartz fiber. In nature, occurs in the form of nodules and sinter forms. Translucent, transparent. Used as a semi-precious stone.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Peridot - olive green stone bottle-green, clean and transparent as glass, ordinary people may even think that this piece of bottle glass.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density: 3.3 g/cm3.

Image chrysolite

Chrysoprase - translucent variety of chalcedony containing nickel, emerald green and apple-green.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Zircon - a mineral yellowish-brown color, zirconium silicate. Transparent crystals called hyacinth. However, in addition to golden yellow and red zircons found brown, yellowish-green, sky-blue stones, and even black. Their color is determined by the alloy of iron, zinc, copper, calcium, titanium, and some of the other rare earth elements.
Mohs hardness: 7.0-8.0. Density: 3,9-4,7 g/cm3.

Citrine - clear brownish-yellow or golden-yellow variety of rock crystal. Yellow tint gives ferric impurities. When heated to +300 ° - 400 ° C, this quartz acquires a bright yellow color with a reddish tint. It is such heat-treated stones are more common in the market. Natural citrine is usually pale yellow and look like topaz, so they are called "golden topaz" and brownish-yellow "Spanish topaz."
Mohs hardness: 7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Zoisite - silicate complex composition comprising aluminum and calcium. Pistachio-green mineral attach the aluminum ions, sometimes replacing the ferric ions. In rocks with zoisite are mineral called Tanzanite, which is considered a kind of zoisite. Another variety of zoisite - tulit that closely resembles the typical rhodonite for pink. Despite the fact that the stone is often used as an ornamental for its rarity and beauty of it is highly valued.
Mohs hardness: 6.0. Density: 3.1-3.5 g/cm3.

image of zoisite

Schorl - a kind of black tourmaline.

Spinel - a group of minerals belonging to the class of complex oxides of aluminum and magnesium. Beautifully painted patterns are called noble spinel.
Mohs hardness: 8.0. Density: 3.6 g/cm3.

Amber - the fossil conifer resin mainly Tertiary, hardened into a dense mass. Color - from milk, honey-yellow, brown to dark orange or reddish. Fragile, but easy to stitch and polished.
Mohs hardness: 2.0-2.5. Density: 1.2 g/cm3.

Image of Amber

Ruby - ruby ​​ancient Russian name "ruby chervchat" and sapphire "blue sapphire".

Jasper - opaque, matte sedimentary rock composed of a dense fine-grained quartz and chalcedony with a lot of impurities in the form tonkorasseyannogo veschestva.Vstrechaetsya coloring in large clusters. The strength and hardness, the beauty of drawing and create a variety of shades of artistic value jasper. Like malachite and rhodonite - typical Russian colored stone.
Mohs hardness: 6.5-7.0. Density: 2.6 g/cm3.

Last Updated on Sunday, 31 August 2014 07:27